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Diabetic Retinopathy: Recent Updates on Different Biomarkers and Some Therapeutic Agents

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 6 ]


Amjad Ali Khan*, Arshad Husain Rahmani and Yousef Homood Aldebasi   Pages 523 - 533 ( 11 )


Background: Diabetic Retinopathy is a leading cause of sight-threatening complication, which occurs due to a number of physiological and metabolic abnormalities during later stages of diabetes. Many of these abnormal changes are consistent with altered oxidative stress, inflammation, genetic set up, advanced glycation end products, and hematological changes. So the altered levels of different biomolecules related to these changes serve as important biomarkers to assess better evaluation and early treatment of this disease.

Some treatments like laser therapy may be fast and specific but are more expensive, limited and can result in severe contraindications. Several other novel treatment strategies have been evolved recently besides classical approaches like control over hyperglycemia, hypertension, lipid profile to control diabetic retinopathy. These precise treatments are based on targeting the elevated biomarkers in retina. Such treatments include use of anti-VEGF therapy, intravitreal corticosteroids, gamigliptin and flavonoids.

Conclusion: The present review discusses the latest updates on diabetic retinopathy, common etiology, different biomarkers and current treatments. In conclusion, perfection and proper supervision of diabetes and early treatment of diabetic retinopathy are crucial in controlling the occurrence and severity of this disease.


Diabetic retinopathy, biomarkers, oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products, inflammation, diabetes treatment.


Department of Basic Health Science, College of Applied Medical Science, Qassim University, Buraidah, Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Science, Qassim University, Buraidah, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Science, Qassim University, Buraidah

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