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Prevalence of Chronic Diabetic Complications in Newly Diagnosed versus Known Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Sample of Alexandria Population, Egypt

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Samir Assaad Khalil*, Magdy Helmy Megallaa, Kamel Hemida Rohoma, Myriam AbouSeif Guindy, Adel Zaki, Mohamed Hassanein, Amin Helmy Malaty, Hanaa Mohamed Ismael, Ibrahim Fahmy Kharboush, Dalal Nasr-Eldein El Kafash, Hassan Nooman Sallam and Iman Abdelkareem Desouky   Pages 74 - 83 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Background: In Egypt, data on the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications, which are essential for the adjustment of policies and practices related to diabetes care, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of chronic complications of diabetes; namely neuropathy, Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD), retinopathy and Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) in newly-diagnosed versus known type 2 diabetic patients.

Subjects & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that is based on a previous household survey conducted on a representative sample of the population of Alexandria, Egypt. This study included 506 consecutive subjects with type 2 diabetes; 323 patients with previously known T2DM and 183 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM (discovered during the survey). For each participant, a focused history was taken. Comprehensive clinical examination was done including fundus examination, foot examination and assessment of ankle brachial index. Laboratory tests included HbAlc, lipids profile, serum creatinine and Urinary Albumin Creatinine Ratio (UACR).

Results: Peripheral neuropathy was detected in 20% of the studied patients; 29.4% of known patients and 3.3% of newly diagnosed patients (p<0.001). Diabetic kidney disease was detected in 33.2% of the studied patients; 46.1% of known patients and 10.4% of newly diagnosed patients (p<0.001). Diabetic retinopathy was detected in 34.6% of the studied patients; 48.3% of known patients and 10.4% of newly diagnosed patients (p<0.001). Peripheral arterial disease was detected in 32.6% of the studied patients; 45.5% of known patients and 9.8% of newly diagnosed patients (p<0.001). In patients with known diabetes, the presence of any of the studied complications (neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy or PAD) was significantly associated with the presence of all other complications (p< 0.001). In patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes, the presence of diabetic kidney disease was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy (p<0.001), with no significant association with PAD (p=0.357).

Conclusion: The present study confirms that a considerable proportion of people with T2DM have microvascular complications and/or PAD at the time of, and possibly years before, diagnosis. Having shown that, it is strongly recommended to apply appropriate screening strategies for subjects with diabetes at the time of diagnosis. Finally, these results should be considered as a call for action for the health care planners and providers in our region to plan for early screening for diabetes and its complications to reduce the disease burden in our community.

Keywords:

Prevalence, diabetic complications, Alexandria, Egypt, chronic, hyperglycemia.

Affiliation:

Unit of Diabetes & Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Unit of Diabetes & Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Unit of Diabetes & Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Department of Biostatistics, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Dubai Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, UAE and Cardiff University, Cardiff, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Department of Nutrition, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Department of Maternal and Child Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria Regional Centre for Women's Health and Development, Alexandria, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria



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