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Type-3c Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes of Exocrine Pancreas - An Update

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra*, Tiew Chin Siang, Chieng Yi Rong, Naveenya Chetty Annan, Esther Ho Yung Sean, Lim Wen Xi, Ong Siu Lyn, Liew Hui Shan, Hira Choudhury, Manisha Pandey and Bapi Gorain   Pages 382 - 394 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Background: The incidence of diabetes is increasing steeply; the number of diabetics has doubled over the past three decades. Surprisingly, the knowledge of type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) is still unclear to the researchers, scientist and medical practitioners, leading towards erroneous diagnosis, which is sometimes misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or more frequently type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review is aimed to outline recent information on the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic management of T3cDM patients.

Methods: The literature related to T3cDM was thoroughly searched from the public domains and reviewed extensively to construct this article. Further, existing literature related to the other forms of diabetes is reviewed for projecting the differences among the different forms of diabetes. Detailed and updated information related to epidemiological evidence, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management is structured in this review.

Results: T3cDM is often misdiagnosed as T2DM due to the insufficient knowledge differentiating between T2DM and T3cDM. The pathogenesis of T3cDM is explained which is often linked to the history of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer. Inflammation, and fibrosis in pancreatic tissue lead to damage both endocrine and exocrine functions, thus leading to insulin/glucagon insufficiency and pancreatic enzyme deficiency.

Conclusion: Future advancements should be accompanied by the establishment of a quick diagnostic tool through the understanding of potential biomarkers of the disease and newer treatments for better control of the diseased condition.

Keywords:

Type 3c diabetes mellitus, insulin, glucagon, pancreatogenic diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Affiliation:

Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, Taylor’s University, 1, Jalan Taylors, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor



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