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High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Correlation with Cystatin-C and Other Cardiovascular and Renal Risk Biomarkers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Complicated with Hypertension

Author(s):

Mohammad J. Alkhatatbeh*, Sajedah A. Smadi, Khalid K. Abdul-Razzak and Nesreen A. Saadeh   Pages 1 - 10 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Background: Vitamin D is increasingly investigated as having a role in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and its cardiovascular and renal complications.

Objective: To investigate association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and biomarkers of cardiovascular and renal complications including cystatin-C.

Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 117 participants with T2DM that was not complicated with cardiovascular or renal diseases except hypertension. 25-OHD was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay while cystatin-C was measured by enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent-assay. Other biomarkers including lipids, creatinine, urea and glycemic measures were determined by the routine biochemistry assays.

Results: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 74.36%. There was no significant difference in cardiovascular and renal biomarkers including glucose, HbA1c, lipids, urea, creatinine and cystatin-C between participants with adequate and deficient vitamin D (p-values>0.05). Participants with adequate vitamin D were older in age, more obese and having lower eGFR (pvalues<0.05). 25-OHD was weakly correlated with age, duration of DM, urea, creatinine and inversely correlated with eGFR (r-values<0.32, p-values<0.05). Although creatinine and cystatin-C were directly correlated (r=0.42, p-value<0.001), cystatin-C and 25-OHD were not correlated (p-value>0.05). Hypertensive participants were more obese, having longer duration of DM and higher urea and cystatin-C compared to non-hypertensive participants (p-values<0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that hypertension can be predicted from increased BMI.

Conclusion: 25-OHD was not correlated with cardiovascular risk biomarkers but it was correlated with renal biomarkers including urea, creatinine and eGFR. Cystatin-C and 25-OHD were not correlated to each other but both were correlated to renal function. Obesity was a significant predictor of hypertension.

Keywords:

Cardiovascular risk, cystatin-C, 25-OHD, hypertension, renal risk, T2DM.

Affiliation:

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110



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