Shiwali Goyal and Dharambir K. Sanghera*
South Asians (SAs), people from the Indian subcontinent (e.g. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal) have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and suffer from a greater risk of CVD-associated mortality compared to other global populations. These problems are compounded by the alterations in lifestyles due to urbanization and changing cultural, social, economic, and political environment. Current methods of CV risk prediction are based on white populations that under-estimate the CVD risk in SAs. Prospective studies are required to obtain actual CVD morbidity/mortality rates so that comparisons between predicted CVD risk can be made with actual events. Overwhelming data support a strong influence of genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) serve as a starting point for future genetic and functional studies since the mechanisms of action by which these associated loci influence CVD is still unclear. It is difficult to predict the potential implication of these findings in clinical settings. This review provides a systematic assessment of the risk factors, genetics, and environmental causes of CV health disparity in SAs, and highlights progress made in clinical and genomics discoveries in the rapidly evolving field which has the potential to show clinical relevance in the near future.
Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Risk Factors, Genetics, Environment, South Asians
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK