Farbod Bahreini, Elham Rayzan and Nima Rezaei *
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial, progressive, autoimmune disease with a strong genetic feature that can affect multiple organs, including kidney, eyes, and nerves. Early detection of type 1 diabetes can help critically to avoid serious damages to these organs. MicroRNAs are small RNA molecules that act in post-transcriptional gene regulation by attaching to the complementary sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of their target genes. Alterations in the expression of microRNA coding genes are extensively reported in several diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Presenting non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of type 1 diabetes by quantifying microRNAs gene expression level can be an influential step in biotechnology and medicine. This review discusses the area of microRNAs dysregulation in type 1 diabetes and affected molecular mechanisms involved in pancreatic islet cells formation and dysregulation in the expression of inflammatory elements as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus, MicroRNAs, Biomarkers, Autoimmune Disease, Cytokines, Biotechnology
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Research Center for Immunodeficiencies (RCID), Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran