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Creatine Supplementation in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials

Author(s):

Marcella Sousa, Mariana Nakata, Carlos Baldini, Elizabeth Oliveira-Sales, Mirian Boim, Ana Martimbianco* and Edgar Maquigussa  

Abstract:


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common form of diabetes. The initial treatment of type 2 DM consists of the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits together with several classes of hypoglycemic agents. However, these medications are not always able to reduce the blood glucose levels in all patients. Therefore, creatine supplementation has emerged as a new putative candidate for type 2 DM treatment. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effects (benefits and harms) of creatine supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes through a systematic review. The studies were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CENTRAL, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases, without date or language restrictions. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias table. The certainty of the evidence was classified using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included (87 participants). Overall, the methodological quality was classified as unclear to a high risk of bias. Each trial compared creatine supplementation with a different control group (placebo, metformin, and glibenclamide). Creatine supplementation seems to be effective in decreasing glycemic levels and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations compared to placebo. No difference was observed compared to metformin or glibenclamide with creatine, and all treatments were able to reduce blood glucose levels. No major adverse effects were observed. Based on the low certainty of the evidence, creatine supplementation was shown to be a hypoglycemic intervention for patients with type 2 diabetes, without major adverse events reported. However, well-designed RCTs with larger sample sizes and long-term outcomes are needed to support this evidence.

Keywords:

Diabetes mellitus, creatine, hypoglycemic agents, glycosylated hemoglobin, metformin, glibenclamide

Affiliation:

Postgraduate Program of Health and Environment, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos, Postgraduate Program of Health and Environment, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos, Postgraduate Program of Health and Environment, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos, Postgraduate Program of Health and Environment, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos, Postgraduate Program of Health and Environment, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos, Postgraduate Program of Health and Environment, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos, Postgraduate Program of Health and Environment, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos



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