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Comparison of Metformin-Sulfonylurea and Metformin-Acarbose Combination Therapies on Glycemic Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study


Wafa, Renni Septini and Rani Sauriasari*  


Objective: Pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus features various combinations of treatments, with different therapies providing different levels of effectiveness. In clinical settings, choices are driven by cost, effectiveness, and safety considerations, and these choices are still under question in Indonesia. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of metformin-sulfonylurea and metformin-acarbose combination therapies on glycemic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: This study was carried out at Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital in Jakarta and utilized a retrospective cohort study design. Participants had consumed the same drug without switching for six months and were divided into a metformin-sulfonylurea group (n = 100) and a metformin-acarbose group (n = 100). The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by considering hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), two hours postprandial glucose, and fasting blood glucose.

Results: After six months’ consumption, there were no statistical differences between results for the metformin-sulfonylurea and metformin-acarbose groups in terms of change of HbA1c (p = 0.062), controlled two hours postprandial blood glucose (p = 0.649), and controlled fasting blood glucose (p = 0.282). Regular exercise was the most significant factor for constant/decreased HbA1c, whereas being male and following a diet were the most significant factors for controlled two hours postprandial blood glucose and fasting blood glucose, respectively.

Conclusion: Based on the analysis performed, there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of six months’ consumption of metformin-sulfonylurea and metformin-acarbose on HbA1c, two hours postprandial blood glucose, and fasting blood glucose.


Metformin, sulfonylurea, acarbose, type 2 diabetes mellitus, HbA1c, two hours postprandial blood glucose, fasting blood glucose


Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital, Jakarta, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok

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