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Type 1 Diabetes-related Autoantibodies in Different Forms of Diabetes

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 3 ]


Elin Pettersen Sørgjerd*   Pages 199 - 204 ( 6 )


Autoantibodies against Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma antigen-2 (IA- 2A), insulin (IAA) and the most recently Zinc Transporter 8 (ZnT8A) are one of the most reliable biomarkers for autoimmune diabetes in both children and adults. They are today the only biomarkers that can distinguish Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) from phenotypically type 2 diabetes. As the frequency of autoantibodies at diagnosis in childhood type 1 diabetes depends on age, GADA is by far the most common in adult onset autoimmune diabetes, especially LADA. Being multiple autoantibody positive have also shown to be more common in childhood diabetes compared to adult onset diabetes, and multiple autoantibody positivity have a high predictive value of childhood type 1 diabetes. Autoantibodies have shown inconsistent results to predict diabetes in adults. Levels of autoantibodies are reported to cause heterogeneity in LADA. Reports indicate that individuals with high levels of autoantibodies have a more type 1 diabetes like phenotype and individuals with low levels of autoantibody positivity have a more type 2 diabetes like phenotype. It is also well known that autoantibody levels can fluctuate and transient autoantibody positivity in adult onset autoimmune diabetes have been reported to affect the phenotype.


Autoimmune diabetes, LADA, GADA; IA-2A, IAA, ZnT8A, Type 2 diabetes, Type 1 diabetes.


HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim

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