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Peripheral Arterial Disease in Persons with Diabetic Foot Ulceration: a Current Comprehensive Overview

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Meloni Marco*, Izzo Valentina, Morosetti Daniele, Da Ros Valerio, Panunzi Andrea, Gandini Roberto, Giurato Laura and Uccioli Luigi   Pages 474 - 485 ( 12 )

Abstract:


In developed countries, the prevalence of persons with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is approximately 50%. The presence of PAD is associated with non-healing ulcers, major amputation, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. It is estimated that persons with diabetes, foot ulceration and PAD have 50% of 5-years mortality rate. Therefore, subjects with ischemic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) should be considered a special group of patients with specific clinical characteristics, general health status and prognosis. In persons with ischemic DFUs, an early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory to reduce the risk of worse outcomes such as major amputation. Revascularization of occluded lower extremity arteries is the main treatment to restore blood flow in the foot and promote wound healing. Nonetheless, there are several unmet needs in the management of diabetic subjects with PAD and foot ulceration as medical therapy, diagnostic criteria and indications for revascularization, revascularization strategy and technical approach as well as the management of no-option critical limb ischemia patients. It is a common opinion that there is an evolution of PAD features in diabetic persons, which seems to present a more aggressive pattern. This may be related to the frequent presence of concomitant comorbidities such as renal failure which could influence the characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques and their distribution. The aim of this review is to commence a complete overview and state of the art in the treatment of patients with diabetes, PAD, and foot ulceration and to describe the current challenges and future perspectives.

Keywords:

Diabetes, diabetic foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease, revascularization, cell therapy, amputation.

Affiliation:

Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vegata, Rome, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vegata, Rome, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vegata, Rome, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vegata, Rome, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vegata, Rome, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vegata, Rome, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vegata, Rome, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vegata, Rome



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