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Diabetes Mellitus during the Pandemic Covid-19: Prevelance, Pathophysiology, Mechanism, and Management: An updated overview

Author(s):

Nadeem Rais, Rizwan Ahmad, Akash Ved*, Kehkashan Parveen, Tauheed Ishrat, Om Prakash, Mohd Shadab, Darakhshan Gazala Bari and Nasir Ali siddiqui  

Abstract:


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the most frequently reported comorbidities in patients tainted with the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With a high pervasiveness of diabetes mellitus, there is an urgency to understand the special aspects of COVID-19 in hyperglycemic patients. Diabetic patients are at higher possibility than the general population of viral or bacterial infections thus require special attention since diabetes is linked with severe, critical, and lethal modes of COVID-19.

Objective: The objectives of this study were to focus on epidemiology, pathophysiology, mechanism, and management of DM with COVID-19.

Method: The search was carried out on databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and CINAHL with the keywords, i.e., COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, diabetes & covid-19, etc.

Result: DM and COVID-19 disease conditions can impact each other in terms of clinical progression and outcome. Available laboratory/clinical observations suggest that hyperglycemia-induced immune dysfunction, inflated lactate grades, and cytokines storm may play critical roles in the seriousness of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes; however, the exact mechanisms linking diabetes and COVID-19 remain to be further clarified.

Conclusion: Standards to constrain the disease spread at the individual and community level are the key to extenuate the speedily rising pandemic. At the same time, definitive treatment like plasma therapy, chemoprophylaxis, or vaccine for COVID-19 has yet to be discovered.

Keywords:

Coronavirus; COVID-19; Diabetes Mellitus; Epidemiology; Pathophysiology; Pandemic.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacy, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, 305004, Department of Pharmacy, Vivek College of Technical Education, Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh, 246701, Goel Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226028, Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, TN, 38163, Goel Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226028, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, 26671, Department of Pharmacy, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, 305004, Department of Pharmacognosy, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2457-11451



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