Stefano Passanisi*, Giuseppina Salzano and Fortunato Lombardo
Skin involvement is an overlooked aspect in the management of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. A comprehensive search of published literature using the PubMed database was carried out using the following key terms: “children”, “pediatric/paediatric patients”, “skin”, “skin disorders”, “type 1 diabetes”. Dermatological side effects are frequently observed among diabetic children and adolescents. Insulin-induced lipodystrophies and allergic contact dermatitis caused by insulin pumps or glycaemic sensors are the most common skin reactions in these patients. Furthermore, several diabetes-associated skin diseases such as necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, vitiligo, and bullosis diabeticorum may already be present in paediatric age. Paediatric diabetes specialists should pay attention to their patients’ skin so as to recognize these disorders, identify the potential causes, and choose the most suitable treatment. Finally, the evaluation of skin concentrations of advanced glycation end-products using non-invasive diagnostic techniques may be used to assess the risk of chronic complications of diabetes as early as adolescence.
Advanced glycation end-products, contact dermatitis, granuloma annulare, insulin, lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, necrobiosis lipoidica, skin autofluorescence
Department of Human Pathology in Adult and Developmental Age, University of Messina, Messina, Department of Human Pathology in Adult and Developmental Age, University of Messina, Messina, Department of Human Pathology in Adult and Developmental Age, University of Messina, Messina